The I2 or Intentional Inclusivity framework is built on three pillars: Awareness, Empathy, Allyship
Awareness: Understanding our biases and our privilege
Empathy: Understanding others' world views and experiences
Allyship: Putting awareness and empathy into action to bring about change
Aparna Joshi is the Arnold Family Professor of Management at the Smeal College of Business, Pennsylvania State University. Over the past two decades she has incorporated the Awareness-Empathy-Allyship framework into her research and teaching on Diversity and Inclusion. More about Aparna...
Aparna's work focuses on gender, diversity, and leadership in organizations. Her research appears in the leading journals in the field of management including Administrative Science Quarterly, Academy of Management Review, Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Applied Psychology, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, and Organization Science. Her work in the area of gender dynamics in engineering work groups was also awarded a National Science Foundation grant.
Aparna’s work has received the Academy of Management’s Saroj Parasuraman Award in 2010, the Dorothy Harlow Distinguished Paper Award in 2006 and 2008, the Ulrich-Lake Award for Outstanding Contribution to the Human Resource Management Journal, and the Academy of Management’s Best Dissertation Award (Gender and Diversity in Organizations division) and has also been featured in the Cincinnati Enquirer, USA Today, and the Times of India. Prior to joining Smeal she was on the faculty of the University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana.
She has served on the editorial boards of top journals and as an Associate Editor for the Academy of Management Journal. Currently, she serves as an Associate Editor for the Administrative Science Quarterly.
She was awarded the 2014 Cummings Award for Early to Mid-Career Scholarly Achievement, one of the highest professional honors in the field, by the Organizational Behavior Division of the Academy of Management and was appointed a Fellow of the Academy of Management in 2019. Over the past two decades Aparna has also enjoyed working with a number of doctoral students who are today faculty at top business schools all over the world (click on "Graduate Students" to learn more).
From the c-suite to professional services firms and engineering teams our research has examined inclusivity on many fronts. a selected set of research publications is listed below:
Dwivedi, P., Misangyi, V. F., & Joshi, A. (2021). “Burnt by the spotlight”: How leadership endorsements impact the longevity of female leaders. Journal of Applied Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000871
Joshi, A., Hambrick, D., & Kang J. 2020. The generativity mindsets of Chief Executive Officers: A new perspective on succession outcomes, Academy of Management Review, In Press
Johnson, T., Joshi, A., & Hogan, T. 2020. On the front lines of disclosure: A conceptual framework of stigma disclosure events, Organizational Psychology Review, In Press.
Dwivedi, P., Joshi, A. & Misangyi V.F. 2018. Gender-inclusive gate-keeping: How (mostly) male predecessors can influence the success of female CEOs. Academy of Management Journal. 61(2), 379-404.
Briscoe, F., & Joshi, A. 2017. Bringing the boss’s politics in: Supervisor political ideology and the gender gap in earnings. Academy of Management Journal, In Press.
Johnson, J., & Joshi, A. 2016. Dark clouds or silver linings? A stigma threat perspective on the implications of an autism diagnosis for workplace well-being.Journal of Applied Psychology. 101(3):430-449.
Joshi, A., Son, J., & Roh, H. 2015. When can women close the gap? A meta-analytic test of sex differences in performance and rewards. Academy of Management Journal.58(5):1516-1545.
Joshi A., & Knight A. 2015. Who defers to whom and why? Dual mechanisms linking demographic differences to dyadic deference and team effectiveness. Academy of Management Journal.58: 59-84.
Joshi A. 2014. By whom and when is women’s expertise recognized? The interactive effects of gender and education in science and engineering teams. Administrative Science Quarterly. 59: 202-239
Gajendran, R., & Joshi, A. 2012. Innovation in globally distributed teams: The role of LMX, communication frequency, and member influence on team decisions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97:1252-1261
Joshi, A., Liao, H., & Roh, H. 2011. Bridging domains in workplace demography research: A review and reconceptualization. Journal of Management. 37: 521-552. Special Issue on Bridging Micro and Macro Domains in Organizational Research
Joshi, A., Dencker, J., Franz, G., & Martocchio. J. 2010. Unpacking generational identities in organizations. Academy of Management Review. Vol. 35, 392-414. Runner up for the Saroj Parusaraman Award, Best Published Paper in the area of Diversity, GDO Division
Joshi, A., Pandey, N., & Han G. 2009. Bracketing team boundary spanning: An examination of task-based, team-level, and contextual moderators. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 30: 731-759. Runner Up 2009 Best Paper in Journal of Organizational Behavior
Joshi, A., & Roh, H. 2009. The role of context in work team diversity research: A meta-analytic review. Academy of Management Journal. 52: 599-628. Winner of the Dorothy Harlow and Saroj Parasuraman awards.
Joshi, A., Lazarova, M., & Liao, H. 2009. Getting everyone on board: The role of inspirational leadership in geographically dispersed teams. Organization Science. 20: 240-252.
Liao, H., Chuang A., & Joshi A. 2008. Perceived deep level dissimilarity: Personality antecedents and impact on overall job attitudes, helping, work withdrawal and turnover. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 106:106-124.
Dencker, J., Joshi, A., & Martocchio, J. 2008. Towards a theoretical framework linking generational memories to workplace attitudes and behaviors. Human Resource Management Review. 18: 210-220.
Dencker, J., Joshi, A., & Martocchio, J. 2007. Employee benefits as a source of inter-generational conflict. Human Resource Management Review. 17:208-220.
Joshi, A. 2006. The influence of organizational demography on the external networking behavior of teams. Academy of Management Review.31: 583-597.
Joshi, A., Liao, H., & Jackson, S.E. 2006. Cross-level effects of workplace diversity on sales performance and pay. Academy of Management Journal, 49: 459-481.
Liao, H., Joshi A., & Chuang, A. 2004. Sticking out like a sore thumb: Employee dissimilarity and deviance. Personnel Psychology.57: 969-1000.
Jackson, S.E. & Joshi A. 2004. Diversity in social context: A multi-attribute, multi-level analysis of team diversity and performance in a sales organization. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25: 675-702.
Leonard, J., Levine, D., & Joshi A. 2004. Do birds of a feather shop together? The effects on performance of employees’ similarity with one another and with customers. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25:731-754.
Jackson, S. E., Joshi, A., & Erhardt, N. L. 2003. Recent research on team and organizational diversity: SWOT analysis and implications. Journal of Management. 29: 801-830. Cited among the top 25 most highly read papers in the Journal of Management
Kochan, T., Bezrukova, K., Ely, R., Jackson, S., Joshi, A., Jehn, K., Leonard, J., Levine, D., and Thomas, D. 2003. The effects of diversity on business performance: Report of a feasibility study of the diversity research network. Human Resource Management Journal, 42: 3-21.
Gully, S., Incalcaterra, K., Joshi, A., & Beaubin, J. 2002. A meta-analysis of team-efficacy, potency, and performance: Interdependence and level of analysis as moderators of observed relationships. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87: 819-832.
Joshi, A., Labianca, G., & Caligiuri P. 2002. Getting along long distance: Understanding conflict in a multinational team through social network analysis. Journal of World Business.37:277-284
Caligiuri, P.M., Joshi, A., & Lazarova M. 1999. Factors affecting the success of women on global assignments. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 10: 163-179.
Caligiuri, P., Hyland, M., Joshi A., & Bross, A. 1998. Testing a theoretical model for examining the relationship between family adjustment and expatriates’ work adjustment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83: 598-614.
Aparna teaches Inclusivity at the Undergraduate and Graduate Levels at the Smeal College of Business, Pennsylvania State University.
At the Undergaduate level she teaches: Managing a Diverse Workforce to Management Majors. This course introduces students to Awareness-Empathy-Allyship principles and develops critical thinking and problem-solving skills for taking a leadership role on diversity issues.
At the EMBA Level she teaches: Leading Diverse Organizations as a short elective. This course develops Awareness-Empathy-Allyship skills based on self-reflection, experiential learning and case discussions.
Upcoming: At the doctoral level she plans to introduce an elective seminar "Diversity and Inclusion in and around Organizations". This course will provide an in-depth review of diversity inclusion research on the topics of Gender, Race, Social Class and other types of differences. It will engage with theories in the areas of Sociology and Social Psychology and develop theory building and methodological skills on the topic of diversity among doctoral students.
2019 Fellow of the Academy of Management
2014 Cummings Award, Early to Mid-Career Scholarly Achievement Award, OB Division, Academy of Management
2010 National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant #0964963 $281,835.00 Joshi, A. Unpacking the Effects of Demographic Diversity in Multidisciplinary Groups (sole PI), Innovations and Organizational Sciences Program, Division of Social and Economic Science
2010 Saroj Parasuraman Award for Best Published Paper in the Area of Diversity, Academy of Management Meeting, Montreal, Canada: Joshi, A., & Roh, H. 2009. The role of context in work team diversity research: A meta-analytic review. Academy of Management Journal. 52: 599-628.
2008 Dorothy Harlow Distinguished Paper Award, Academy of Management Meeting, Anaheim, CA: Joshi A., & Roh., H. 2008. Considering context in work team diversity research: A meta-analytic review.
2007 OB Division’s Making Connections Award, Annual Academy of Management Meeting, Philadelphia, PA. Joshi A. 2007. How, where, and why diversity matters: A contextualized agenda for future research. Chair, organizer and presenter of panel symposium.
2006 Dorothy Harlow Distinguished Paper Award, Academy of Management Meeting, Atlanta. Liao, H., Chuang, A., & Joshi, A. 2006. In the eye of the beholder: Understanding perceived dissimilarity.
2001 Gender and Diversity in Organization's Best Paper Based on a Dissertation Award, Academy of Management. Joshi, A. 2001. The context in which some differences make a difference: The influence of organizational demography on the outcomes of team diversity.